Thesis Statement

Thesis Statement:

“To use architecture to facilitate social growth and prosperity.”

Project:

Three key aspects: Medical, Educational, and Social

I have been asked to design an education center and outpatient clinic (that includes an orphanage) in Arusha, Tanzania by the organization called Feed the Children. My goal is not only to design sustainable and efficient structures, but to promote a social program to the center. Each program (health and education) are to be located on the same site but as separate structures. The space in between these buildings will be the progressive link that promotes social growth.

Feed the Children’s Mission Statement

Feed the Children is a Christian, international, nonprofit relief organization with headquarters in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, that delivers food, medicine, clothing and other necessities to individuals, children, and families who lack these essentials due to famine, war, poverty, or natural disaster.

Strategies:

– Create a (vegatable and fruit) garden that will be used by the community that utilizes the center.

  • Patient’s family members who accompany them can take the opportunity to learn how to grow, harvest, and care for crops. The children who live on site can help maintain and demonstrate to the visitors how to do this or the computer lab, equipped with internet, could have demonstration videos.

– Allow the actual construction of the center to be completed with the help of professionals and locals within the neighboring community

– Use sustainable design/ approaches to show the community how they can implement these ideas at their home.

Reading: United Nations’ “Urban-Rural Linkages Approach to Sustainable Development”

Chapter 8: Analysis of Urban-Rural Linkages and Livelihoods in Mlandizi, Dar es Salaam by Nimrod S. Mushi

Abstract

“This paper presents a number of findings from the research on the impact of socio-economic infrastructure on rural-urban linkages and livelihoods in the Dar es Salaam impact region. The principal enquiry was how could the local authorities, government, and policy makers tap the prospective outcomes which bear upon people’s ability to enhance rural-urban linkags and livelihoods in both rural and urban areas” (Mushi 128)

“Projects and programmes should be planned with “full” knowledge of local contexts. Institutions are embedded in history, way of life, and politics are an integral part of the society and history of a village or local community” (Mushi 128)

“Rural-urban linkages can be divided into two broad categories: spatial linkages and sectoral linkages. Spatial linkages comprise flows of agricultural commodities from rural to urban markets, and in the opposite direction flow of manufactured and imported goods from urban areas to rural settlements”  (Mushi 128)

“Therefore, the myriads of exchanges of goods and services that take place in daily transactions cumulatively bring about multiplier effects in the long run that contribute to enhanced livelihoods in both rural and urban areas” (Mushi 128).  **the flow of goods and services, money, farmer and consumer, etc**

“Sectoral linkages include forward and backward linkages between agriculture and manufacturing services” (Mushi 128)

“Urban and rural areas are closely linked, each contributing to the other symbiotically or paradoxically which needs to be considered in development planning” (Mushi 129)

“Assets, in this particular context, are defined not only as natural (i.e. land, water, resources, flora, and fauna) but also social (i.e. community, family, social networks), physical (i.e. roads, health facilities, schools), human (i.e. education, labor, health), economic (i.e. income, jobs, markets) and political (i.e. participation, empowerment). In view of that, sustainable livelihoods refer to the capability of people to make a living and improve their quality of life without jeopardising the options of both now and in the future” (Mushi 129)

“The conceptual issues are: infrastructure, demographic, economic, and institutional linkages” (Mushi 130).

*** is Arusha growing? take percentages of population growth and agricultural growth into account

*** it wasn’t until recently that Dar es Salaam would allow women to buy, rent, or lease farmland. tomatoes, cashews, and some okra are grown in this region. most farmers grow on a sustenance level more so than commercial. proximity to grow and sell at markets is integral to success.

“These results seem to suggest that the changing land owning structures from large farms to small lots is an ideal motivation for enhanced rural-urban linkages and livelihoods, and that provide introduction of high value crop farming that has increased the value per hectare in the village, thus, increasing participation in rural-urban linkages and enhanced livelihoods” (Mushi 136)

*** the farmer sells their product for half of what the buyer will sell it for at the markets***

“The findings reveal that household income is diversified and dependent on several income sources. Families participate in multiple activities using different strategies, namely selling their farms as a last resort to get capital to invest in other activities, or using tomatoes from their farm for cooking at food vending kiosks and hiring the youth to sell their tomato produce in the market or on the roadside to travellers” (Mushi 139)

“Agriculture has tended to become a secondary subsistence activity when other income earning alternatives are in full swing. Yet, agriculture is a fallback activity when other activities are not paying. Such a trend should be viewed positively because it involves higher incomes accruing from the non-farm activites” (Mushi 140).

“The participation of farmers on non-farm activities clearly constitues a leap in the improvement of their livelihoods” (Mushi 140).

“The infrastructure facilities are of central significance for settlements and their development. An inadequate infrastructure can be a disadvantage for a location, whilst good infrastructure can positively influence the choice of location of households and traders… The provision of infrastructure such as roads ensures that the rural and urban poor can properly use their efforts to produce for the urban and rural markets by reducing costs of transportation” (Mushi 140).

“Promotion of a local resource-conserving and environmentally compatible development in the delineated functional region. A sustainable future of such a region, can only be achieved in the long-term search and coordination process, whereby social  demands of land use are reconciled with the natural fundamentals of life” (Mushi 144).

Works Cited

Mushi, Nimrod S. “Analysis of Urban-Rural Linkages and Livelihoods in Mlandizi, Dar Es Salaam.” Urban-rural Linkages Approach to Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UN-Habitat, 2005. 128-46. Print.

*** this reading has helped me understand the importance and sustainability of agriculture in Tanzania. It has been understood that the ability to grow your own food is very important in their culture. So understanding how the people of Arusha view their agriculture will be integral to my idea of creating vegetation gardens on the site. Infrastructure will be important to understand as well. Once knowing the location of the site, issues such as transport of crops or making a small market could influence the growth of the neighborhood/community.***

Mind Map

Questionnaire

Questionnaire

There are three categories of interest I would like to explore with the aid of this questionnaire. The same questions will be asked to a doctor, nurse, volunteer, and most importantly, locals that have been participating with Feed the Children in Arusha. The goal is to get a better understanding of the dynamics within the building, the culture of the people, and specifics of design ideas for the center.

Culture:

  1. What are some things that define your culture? For example, music, language, agriculture…
  2. What do you think is interesting about the culture?
  3. In your culture is it polite to be straightforward and direct when you talk to someone?
    • To whom is it OK and to whom is it not OK?
    • Does this differ in a clinic or education center? If so, how so?
  4. What do you like about your culture?
  5. What don’t you like about your culture?
  6. How are your language teachers who are not from your country different from your other teachers?
    • How are they the same?
  7. If you could change one thing about your culture, what would it be?
  8. What is the best/most important thing your culture has given to the world?
  9. What is your opinion of health care (medicine, doctors, etc) in your community?
  10. What does the word “trust” mean to you?
  11. What does “privacy” mean to you? Is it the same at your house, at the doctors, at school, etc?
  12. Are there activities that people in your family, neighborhood, tribe, or community do together in a social arena?

Works cited:
“ESL Conversation Questions – Culture (I-TESL-J).” Internet TESL Journal (For ESL/EFL Teachers). Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <http://iteslj.org/questions/culture.html&gt;.

Building Dynamics: Outpatient Center

  • Lobby
  1. What is the most important room in the building?
  2. What is the function of the lobby/waiting room?
  3. How many people will, on average, occupy the waiting room (patients and staff)?
  4. Is there a focal point in the lobby?
  5. How many staff members need to occupy the lobby (storage, desk space, computer requirements, etc)?
  • Medical Ward
  1. How should the rooms in the medical ward be organized?
  2. Should there be a range in the exam room (infant/ child/ adult or severe/ less severe)?
  3. Is cross-ventilation sanitary in medical ward?
  4. How many exam rooms are needed? What size(s)?
  5. Is there a nurses’ station/support area?
  6. What other rooms are required to support medical ward (janitor, storage, ISO?)?
  7. What is the medical equipment needed for each room?
  • Dormitory
  1. How many bedrooms are needed?
  2. How many beds/ bunk beds are in each room?
  3. What is the age range for the children who occupy these rooms (should the rooms differ for each age group)?
  4. What is the range of time each child lives in these dorms?
  5. Are there other functions that the dormitories need (playground, playroom, library, etc)?
  6. Should the dormitory be attached to the medical ward?
  7. Are there nurses or staff members that operate the dormitory?
  8. Does this staff need sleeping quarters?
  9. What are the bathroom requirements for children and staff?
  10. Is there a security requirement for the dorm rooms?
  11. Kitchen requirements?

Education Center:

  1. What is included in the library?
  2. How much storage (shelving) is needed for books?
  3. Are the library and computer room separate rooms?
  4. How many computers are needed?
  5. Is it ideal to have the library well lit and computer room darker?
  6. Can there be an “outside” educational component to the program (garden, community gathering, etc)?

Additional Questions:

  1. What is the most important aspect of the clinic?
  2. What is the most important aspect of the education center?
  3. What is the overall goal for the project?
  4. Can you see the community getting involved in the building/maintaining/ growing of the center?
  5. What kind of architecture is commonly seen in Arusha?
  6. What kind of architecture is considered “modern” in Arusha?
  7. What materials are common in the area?
  8. Are there common sustainable techniques used in the area? If so, what are they?
  9. Would water retaining be a possibility?
  10. Are the staff members (doctors, nurses, maintenance) all year, seasonal, or volunteer based?
  11. How will the center be accessed (car, pedestrian, public transportation)?
  12. What is the existing vegetation of the site?
  13. Are there any specific design ideas that should be implemented (lighting, proximity, organization, materials, scale, etc)
  14. Is bamboo able to grown and manufactured in Arusha?
  15. Are there Tanzanian Building Codes?
  16. Is it typical for buildings to be raised above the ground? Why?
  17. Can you describe the site (views, existing vegetation, slope, neighborhood, context, existing access)?

 

Questionnaire (Rough Draft)

The three categories of interest I would like to explore with the aid of this questionnaire. The same questions will be asked to a doctor, nurse, volunteer, and most importantly, a local that have been participating with Feed the Children in Arusha. The goal is to get a better understanding of the dynamics within the building, the culture of the people, and specifics of design ideas for the center.

Culture:

  1. What are some things that define your culture? For example, music, language, agriculture…
  2. What do you think is interesting about the culture”
  3. Do you know much about your own culture?
  4. When people from other countries think about your culture, what do they usually think of?
  5. In your culture is it polite to be straightforward and direct when you talk to someone?
    • To whom is it OK and to whom is it not OK?
  6. What has surprised you when you’ve met people from other countries?
  7. Have you looked at Internet pages from a different culture? If so, how were they different from those of your own culture?
  8. What do you like about your culture?
  9. What don’t you like about your culture?
  10. How do young people in your culture behave differently from older people?
  11. How do young people in your culture behave differently from people in this culture?
  12. Are there many people of different cultures in your country? Are you friends with any?
  13. How are your language teachers who are not from your country different from your other teachers?
    • How are they the same?
  14. Who in your culture do you admire most?
  15. What your culture are you most proud about?
  16. Why do you think culture is important?
  17. If you could change one thing about your culture, what would it be?
  18. Would you ever consider living permanently in a country other than your home country? Why or why not?
  19. What does it mean to be polite in your culture?
  20. What is considered rude in your culture?
    • Is there anything in this culture that is considered rude that may not be considered rude in your culture?
  21. If a group of people just came to your country from overseas, what advice would you give them?
  22. What other cultures have you met people from?
  23. What culture besides your own do you admire and why?
  24. If aliens visited your country, what might surprise them?
  25. Do you pray before each meal?
  26. What is the best/most important thing your culture has given to the world?
  27. What is the best/most important thing your culture/country has adopted from another culture?
  28. If you could choose three aspects of your culture to put in a “time box” for the future, what would you put in it?

Works cited:

“ESL Conversation Questions – Culture (I-TESL-J).” Internet TESL Journal (For ESL/EFL Teachers). Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <http://iteslj.org/questions/culture.html&gt;.

 

Building Dynamics: Outpatient Center

  • Lobby
  1. What is the most important room in the building?
  2. What is the function of the lobby/waiting room?
  3. How many people will, on average, occupy the waiting room (patients and staff)?
  4. Is there a focal point in the lobby?
  5. How many staff members need to occupy the lobby (storage, desk space, computer requirements, etc)?
  • Medical Ward
  1. How should the rooms in the medical ward be organized?
  2. Should there be a range in the exam room (infant/ child/ adult or severe/ less severe)?
  3. Is cross-ventilation sanitary in medical ward?
  4. How many exam rooms are needed?
  5. Is there a nurses’ station/support area?
  6. What other rooms are required to support medical ward (janitor, storage, ISO?)?
  7. What is the medical equipment needed for each room?
  • Dormitory
  1. How many bedrooms are needed?
  2. How many beds/ bunk beds are in each room?
  3. What is the age range for the children who occupy these rooms (should they differ for each age group)?
  4. What is the range of time each child lives in these dorms?
  5. Are there other functions that the dormitories need (playground, playroom, library, etc)?
  6. Should the dormitory be attached to the medical ward?
  7. Are there nurses or staff members that operate the dormitory?
  8. Does this staff need sleeping quarters?
  9. What are the bathroom requirements for children and staff?
  10. Is there a security requirement for the dorm rooms?
  11. Kitchen requirements?

Education Center:

  1. What is included in the library?
  2. How much storage (shelving) is needed for books?
  3. Are the library and computer room separate rooms?
  4. How many computers are needed?
  5. Is it ideal to have the library well lit and computer room darker?
  6. Can there be an “outside” educational component to the program (garden, community gathering, etc)?

Additional Questions:

  1. What is the most important aspect of the clinic?
  2. What is the most important aspect of the education center?
  3. What is the overall goal for the project?
  4. Can you see the community getting involved in the building/maintaining/ growing of the center?
  5. What kind of architecture is commonly seen in Arusha?
  6. What kind of architecture is considered modern in Arusha?
  7. What materials are common in the area?
  8. Are there common sustainable techniques used in the area? If so, what are they?
  9. Would water retaining be a possibility?
  10. Are the staff members (doctors, nurses, maintenance) all year, seasonal, or volunteer based?
  11. How will the center be accessed (car, pedestrian, public transportation)?
  12. What is the existing vegetation of the site?
  13. Are there any specific design ideas that should be implemented (lighting, proximity, organization, materials, scale, etc)
  14. Is bamboo able to grown and manufactured in Arusha?
  15. What are the building capabilities in the area?
  16. Are there Tanzanian Building Codes?
  17. Is it typical for buildings to be raised above the ground? Why?
  18. Can you describe the site (views, existing vegetation, slope, neighborhood, context, existing access)?

Clinic Program Requirements (Rough Draft)

General:

  • Windows – as many as is feasible
  • Nice front entrance
  • Additional exits from kitchen, laundry, dorm-style hallways, medical ward
  • Possible an additional entrance directly into the multipurpose room

Other requests include the following:

  • Waiting room
  1. designed to receive visitors
  2. comfortable, cozy, intimate setting to entertain/ converse for a short time
  3. seating for 8-10 people
  • Multipurpose Room
  1. for eating
  2. playing
  3. meeting for large groups
  4. entertaining
  5. staging area for local outreaches (outside of the center)
  • Kitchen
  1. Must take into consideration utility of space (for storage, meal preparation, cooking, serving, clean up)
  2. Must therefore be versatile to:
  • accommodate meals for live-in staff
  • preparation for baby needs (including formula/ baby food)
  • prepare food for older children
  • Laundry
  1. 2-3 washers
  2. 2-3 dryers
  3. Large sink
  4. Closet/cabinets
  5. Some counter space
  • Dormitory Bathroom
  1. 3 showers
  2. 3 toilets
  3. 1 large sink
  4. 1 closet (linen/utility)
  • Dormitory rooms
  1. 6-8 cribs/ sets of bunk beds per room
  2. no built-ins within these rooms
  3. lockers/ cabinets to be placed down the length of the hall
  • Staff bedroom/bathroom
  1. 2 single beds
  2. nightstand
  3. closet
  4. bath to include (powder room with sink, toilet, shower, cabinet)
  • Medical Ward
  1. 6 beds
  2. sink
  3. nurses’ station (counter for writing, cabinet for storage)

Reading: Kolb’s “Place Complexity”

“Does the place encourage inhabitants to be aware of their own processes of active interpretation and their resolution of multiple roles and demands? (Increasing the structural complexity of a place can increase the occasions for such awareness. Conversely, finding ways to stimulate such awareness may reveal structural complexities)” (Kolb 55).

“Does the place show explicit spatial or symbolic links and signs of its belonging within larger systems, social contexts, and their genetic processes” (Kolb 56).

“Spatial and social complexities bring references and connections that impose multiple and mutually qualifying norms on the paths of action within a place” (Kolb 59).

“Complex places demand sensitivity to cultural languages and codes, catching the drift of forms of life, sensing the narrative surrounding an action and realizing that a significant move has happened or is now being called for, knowing what to do and how to go on from here” (Kolb 60).

“Architects create references and harmonies between one part of a building and another; there are social equivalents when actions here echo and repeat actions there, or what is to be done or avoided here echoes in unexpected ways the norms for actions there” (Kolb 60).

“Dealing with oversimplified places, the goal should be, in Hegelian terms, to show that apparent immediacy is always mediated, more complex than it appears, linked and made what is by its relations to others, and existing within an ongoing process that sustains and re-creates it. Complex places provide opportunities for such discovery, because their horizons of meaning for action show more of the underlying mediations of their social reality” (Kolb 66).

“When individuals come together, they engender the social and organize place. But the space of supermodernity is inhavited by this contradiction: it deals only with individuals (customers, passengers, users, listeners), but they are identified… only on entering or leaving…. it seems that the social game is being played elsewhere than in the forward posts of contemporaneity” (Auge 1995, 11) ” (Kolb 72).

Works Cited:

Kolb, David. Sprawling Places. Athens: University of Georgia, 2008. Print.