Chapter 8: Analysis of Urban-Rural Linkages and Livelihoods in Mlandizi, Dar es Salaam by Nimrod S. Mushi
“This paper presents a number of findings from the research on the impact of socio-economic infrastructure on rural-urban linkages and livelihoods in the Dar es Salaam impact region. The principal enquiry was how could the local authorities, government, and policy makers tap the prospective outcomes which bear upon people’s ability to enhance rural-urban linkags and livelihoods in both rural and urban areas” (Mushi 128)
“Projects and programmes should be planned with “full” knowledge of local contexts. Institutions are embedded in history, way of life, and politics are an integral part of the society and history of a village or local community” (Mushi 128)
“Rural-urban linkages can be divided into two broad categories: spatial linkages and sectoral linkages. Spatial linkages comprise flows of agricultural commodities from rural to urban markets, and in the opposite direction flow of manufactured and imported goods from urban areas to rural settlements” (Mushi 128)
“Therefore, the myriads of exchanges of goods and services that take place in daily transactions cumulatively bring about multiplier effects in the long run that contribute to enhanced livelihoods in both rural and urban areas” (Mushi 128). **the flow of goods and services, money, farmer and consumer, etc**
“Sectoral linkages include forward and backward linkages between agriculture and manufacturing services” (Mushi 128)
“Urban and rural areas are closely linked, each contributing to the other symbiotically or paradoxically which needs to be considered in development planning” (Mushi 129)
“Assets, in this particular context, are defined not only as natural (i.e. land, water, resources, flora, and fauna) but also social (i.e. community, family, social networks), physical (i.e. roads, health facilities, schools), human (i.e. education, labor, health), economic (i.e. income, jobs, markets) and political (i.e. participation, empowerment). In view of that, sustainable livelihoods refer to the capability of people to make a living and improve their quality of life without jeopardising the options of both now and in the future” (Mushi 129)
“The conceptual issues are: infrastructure, demographic, economic, and institutional linkages” (Mushi 130).
*** is Arusha growing? take percentages of population growth and agricultural growth into account
*** it wasn’t until recently that Dar es Salaam would allow women to buy, rent, or lease farmland. tomatoes, cashews, and some okra are grown in this region. most farmers grow on a sustenance level more so than commercial. proximity to grow and sell at markets is integral to success.
“These results seem to suggest that the changing land owning structures from large farms to small lots is an ideal motivation for enhanced rural-urban linkages and livelihoods, and that provide introduction of high value crop farming that has increased the value per hectare in the village, thus, increasing participation in rural-urban linkages and enhanced livelihoods” (Mushi 136)
*** the farmer sells their product for half of what the buyer will sell it for at the markets***
“The findings reveal that household income is diversified and dependent on several income sources. Families participate in multiple activities using different strategies, namely selling their farms as a last resort to get capital to invest in other activities, or using tomatoes from their farm for cooking at food vending kiosks and hiring the youth to sell their tomato produce in the market or on the roadside to travellers” (Mushi 139)
“Agriculture has tended to become a secondary subsistence activity when other income earning alternatives are in full swing. Yet, agriculture is a fallback activity when other activities are not paying. Such a trend should be viewed positively because it involves higher incomes accruing from the non-farm activites” (Mushi 140).
“The participation of farmers on non-farm activities clearly constitues a leap in the improvement of their livelihoods” (Mushi 140).
“The infrastructure facilities are of central significance for settlements and their development. An inadequate infrastructure can be a disadvantage for a location, whilst good infrastructure can positively influence the choice of location of households and traders… The provision of infrastructure such as roads ensures that the rural and urban poor can properly use their efforts to produce for the urban and rural markets by reducing costs of transportation” (Mushi 140).
“Promotion of a local resource-conserving and environmentally compatible development in the delineated functional region. A sustainable future of such a region, can only be achieved in the long-term search and coordination process, whereby social demands of land use are reconciled with the natural fundamentals of life” (Mushi 144).
Mushi, Nimrod S. “Analysis of Urban-Rural Linkages and Livelihoods in Mlandizi, Dar Es Salaam.” Urban-rural Linkages Approach to Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UN-Habitat, 2005. 128-46. Print.
*** this reading has helped me understand the importance and sustainability of agriculture in Tanzania. It has been understood that the ability to grow your own food is very important in their culture. So understanding how the people of Arusha view their agriculture will be integral to my idea of creating vegetation gardens on the site. Infrastructure will be important to understand as well. Once knowing the location of the site, issues such as transport of crops or making a small market could influence the growth of the neighborhood/community.***